Surely the goal of any prison system should be to minimise re-offending, Having studied the issue imprisonment is frequently not the most effective way to minimise re-offending. Education and training is usually considerably more effective.
Schemes where people are not incarcerated are considerably cheaper, I forget the figures but the cost of imprisoning people is astronomical. Cheaper to put them up at The Ritz than to imprison them,
Patrick Chtisty of G B News was mooting the use of chain gangs in the UK for farm work today. It is cheaper and more effective to keep people out of jail in the first place. The money saved could then be used to pay a more attractive wage for farm labour,
The American system of chain gangs seems only to produce hardened criminals.
A quick glances at recidivism rates in the UK and the US (Where they already use chain gangs,) systems would seem to indicate they are currently ineffective.
)In Australia the emphasis is usually on rehabilitation rather than punishment. Though the rate of indigenous incarceration is far too high,
My youngsters had an interesting talk given at school by an indigenous guy who explained to them that one of the reasons for this was the undigenous culture of community property. They were told that one of the issues is that property tends to be shared in indigenous communities. Elsewhere this may be regarded as stealing.